(12) In a few NENA languages the fresh new preterite out-of Classification II verbs enjoys an effective vocalism (m)CoCiC- or (m)CuCiC- without any precursor in the previous dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) suggested that progressive means is actually regarding the newest Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he got it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Variations having o or you is absent external NENA as well as have in several of your own NENA dialects: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and you will Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The general present is marked because of the a beneficial prefix throughout NENA except Hertevin as well as in Mandaic as well as in Turoyo. The brand new prefix requires one of three versions: (a) k- to your every verbs (state-of-the-art in order to c- within the Urmi, prolonged so you’re able to ko- before consonants during the Turoyo, and in Zakho getting g- ahead of a voiced phoneme); (b) k- but only for the a restricted family of verbs (with some voicing consumption and often most other change too); otherwise (c) i- to the all the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, private telecommunications); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we would say’, but doqIx-wa-le ‘we perform observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he eats, often eat’, however, sate ‘he drinks, have a tendency to, may drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin we-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu we-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The brand new k- prefix appears to be an endurance of one’s prefix qa- out of BT, as in the new common qatane ‘he teaches’. e ‘stands’. In certain eastern koreancupid profili languages the fresh distribution from k- has-been limited by a little family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In others, it offers vanished and you may become changed of the a different sort of prefix i-, and this most likely got its start because the less style of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I visits new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla da kIcca ‘I decided to go to bring money so you’re able to a beneficial girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The latest verb ‘give’ was yehav in the BT, and yav in Syriac. This has been remade in every NENA languages from the incorporation of following l- ‘to’. The newest essential, which had been hav from inside the Syriac and you may BT, is hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in every NENA which I have suggestions, however in Turoyo or Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, the new only 1 imperative from qyama ‘get up’ has shed their final m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). This new plural, not, retains this new meters.
(16) Throughout NENA, the newest essential of (i)zala ‘go’ was irregular: Aradhin si (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani quand (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) All over NENA, various conditions are utilized as the foot to possess reflexive pronouns eg ‘myself’. He is: ruh- when you look at the Hertevin plus in Turoyo, nos- regarding about three easternmost Jewish dialects, and you can gyan- from the remaining dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
That it qa- was in itself a beneficial contraction from qa?
(18) A separate preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which will take the design ta, tla, otherwise tla is actually common, even though not universal, inside the NENA, although not utilized in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) involved cook’ (Rubba, personal communication), Zakho cuxa la psIxle darga tale ‘no you to unsealed the door so you can him’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 182).